Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease in both men and women worldwide. It is transmitted through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. This study provided information on the Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccine awareness and vaccination history in relation to the level of antibodies to HPV in the population at risk in Nigeria.
Patients attending STI clinics at Lagos and Ibadan were recruited and informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Using semi structured questionnaire, vaccination history, demography and past experiences of the patients were obtained. Of the samples analysed 50 Thirty It was also noted that there is higher prevalence among the middle-aged women. A high prevalence of HPV antibodies was observed in the study yet none of the participants had received the HPV vaccine thus the antibodies may be from infection. Implication is that the 30 women who tested positive for the HPV antibodies may be at risk of cervical cancer.
Human Papilloma Virus HPV is one of the viruses of the papillomavirus family that comprises of nonenveloped, epitheliotropic DNA viruses that induce benign lesions of the skin warts and mucous membranes condylomas. Some papillomaviruses have also been implicated in the development of epithelial malignancies including cancer of the cervix and other tumors of the urogenital tract Howley et al.
To date, over genotypes of HPV has been identified of which at least 35 types are sexually transmitted Abreu et al. HPV infection of the anogenital tract represents the most important medical burden of the group of Women over 40 fuck in Faneye.
HPV infections affect the genital skin and mucosa, including the virginal tract, cervix and anal canal and most of these infections are sexually transmitted. HPV is transmitted through genital contact, most often during vaginal, oral and anal sex. HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted viral disease in both men and women worldwide Burd E. Most of the young women infected with HPV are able to clear the virus and the infection is usually temporary with little long-term effect. Nevertheless, the infection persists in five to ten percent of infected women and this le to a high risk of developing cancer of the cervix.
Epidemiological studies have shown that infection with specific types of HPV with its DNA integrated in the cervical cells is a precursor to development of invasive cervical cancer Hwang et al.
Hepatitis b virus infection among sexually active individuals in nigeria: a cross-sectional study
Some sexually transmitted HPV types have been categorised into high risk and low risk subgroups based on their relative risk potential to induce invasive cancer Thomas et al. HPV genotypes 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82 are defined as high risk groups Cogliano et al. There are two vaccines available for prevention of some HPV infection in Nigeria. They are Gardasil which is marketed by Merk, and it protects against infection of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while Cervirex marketed by GlaxoSmithKline which prevents infection of HPV types 16 and 18 Women over 40 fuck in Faneye available for sale over the counter and not through any government programme.
Although these vaccines are quite effective they do not have any therapeutic effect on existing HPV infections or cervical lesions Markowitz et al. One hundred and six patients were recruited from Ibadan and 64 patients were recruited from Lagos.
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Informed consent was obtained from all the participants of this study. With the aid of semi structured questionnaire, vaccination history, demography and past experiences of the patients were obtained. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from Nigeria institute of medical research NIMR ethics board.
About 5ml of blood was collected from each of the consented participants into sterile EDTA bottles and transported into the laboratory in a cold box with ice packs to maintain cold chain.
The samples with equivocal were retested and those that were still equivocal after retesting were regarded as negative. All the data obtained were analysed using SPSS One hundred and seventy participants were recruited for the study. Of this, Their age ranged from years. Mean age was 33 with a standard deviation of 9. Seventy Table 1 below shows socio-demographic data and distribution of anti HPV IgG antibodies among the study population.
Thirty five percent of the women were aware of HPV vaccine.
Of the 35 women who were aware of the vaccine 20 This study provided information on the prevalence of HPV infection, as well as its gender and age distribution and marital status among patients attending STI clinics in Lagos and Ibadan Nigeria. It also showed the level of awareness, accessibility and affordability of HPV vaccine among women in the study population.
The high prevalence found among women in this study is higher than what was observed in study by Vaccarella et al.
This higher prevalence could be because the study was conducted among high risk population STI clinic attendees. This result is different from what was observed by Adekunle et al.
Men of the age group also had the highest rate of seropositivity to HPV. All these information is similar to what has been observed in literature that HPV seropositivity is highest at middle age Wang et al. This is the age that people are most sexually active and HPV being sexually transmitted explains the higher prevalence at this age.
It is also important to note that people of higher education had the highest rate of seropositivity to HPV antibodies among the study population. This could be because this group of people are more enlighten thus are more likely to seek medical attention as they are the largest group in the study population.
In addition married people both male and female had the highest rate of seropositivity of HPV antibodies compared to other marital status buttressing the fact that this group of people are more sexually active resulting from cohabitation. There is a low level of awareness and accessibility of HPV vaccine among women in among the female participants of this study.
In Women over 40 fuck in Faneye, this study showed that there is a high prevalence of HPV among sexually active individuals in Nigeria. There is also a low level of awareness and accessibility of the vaccine among women. Most of the women could also not afford the vaccine. This information shows the need for more effort in providing information on HPV and its prevention as this will ultimately aid in prevention of cervical Women over 40 fuck in Faneye and other HPV related cancers in Nigeria.
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding organizations. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Arch Basic Appl Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 3. Faneye1 A. Adeiga2 O. Awoderu2 and A. Fayemiwo 3.
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Abstract HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease in both men and women worldwide. Sample collection and Processing About 5ml of blood was collected from each of the consented participants into sterile EDTA bottles and transported into the laboratory in a cold box with ice packs to maintain cold chain. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. High negativity of IgG antibodies against human papilloma virus type 6, 11, 16 and 18 virus-like particles in healthy women of childbearing age.
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Lancet Oncology. Classification of papillomavirusses: Virology. Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 binds to E2F1 and activates E2F1-driven transcription in a retinoblastoma protein-independent manner. J Biol Chem.
Fields Virology. Burd E. N Engl J Med 6. Papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions: a meta-analysis update. Int J Cancer 1. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide.